Friday, May 11, 2007

L 221 F

According to the teachings of history if a lot of people agree in something it is not sure that this something must be the truth. For example Copernicus - in his century - was the only one who was on the opinion that the Earth is global. Everyone else was totally sure about that the Earth is flat. In our days we know that the multitude was wrong.

In spite of this if we deal with religions it is unavoidable to check how many adherents they have. The first one which has the largest number of followers is the Roman Catholic Church, the next is Islam, the third ones are Hinduism, Confucionism and Taoism and the fourth is Buddhism.

There are many different opinions about the exact time of the beginning of Hinduism but usually it is said to began in approximately 1500 BC. But one can find followers of the tendency which claims that Hinduism is 6000, 10000 or even 50000 years old. Anyway Hinduism is the only religion that divides its adherents into four castes which can seldom be mixed with each other. In approximately 500 BC as a breakaway from Hinduism Buddhism began. In a way Buddhism is not a religion , it is rather a lifestyle and the collection of methods which lead to enlightenment. It is interesting to mention that in one of the Buddhist branches - called Zen Buddhism - there is a saying: “After uttering Buddha’s name wash your mouth out.”. It emphasises the unique way - the way of several methods - and would not believe in any kind of Gods or Buddhas.

In the Near East Judaism developed in a contradictional way. First it mixed with Egyptian religion then step by step through the appearing of the prophets it converted in a separate and independent religion. One can clearly follow the development of the changing Jewish idea of God, because in the Old Testament every prophets’ word had been kept word by word. Judaism inspired with the waiting for the coming of Messiah, but when someone is claiming that he is the Messiah or the messenger of it the Jews lost no time in killing them. It happened with Jesus Christ as well with a slightly difference that the Roman governor Pilate Pontius condemned him to death. In approximately 600 AD Mohammed turned up with the intention of mixing the teachings of Judaism and Christianity. In his opinion Adam, Abraham, Jesus and Mohammed were all prophets, the prophets of Allah. The Jewish and Christian people did not share his opinion so the religious wars have started and continued up to our days.

Nowadays the number of religious followers are the highest than ever. The religious types of books are on the tops of the best-sellers lists. God is mentioned more than ever, so therefore unavoidably the question of what is the reason for all that popularity comes up. The first reason is the basic contradiction of human existence, because one is being born to this world maybe unwillingly and disappear from here without any questioning. And if that is the case every human being struggles between the barrier of birth and death, while fighting for implementing their secret dreams and ideas. Everyone has got a feeling that they have to crush their hopes, ambitions and desires into a short interval of a human life. To make it more difficult they can not even use that brief time without any disturbance of a higher authority which steadily interfere in everyone’s life, way of thinking and behaviour.

Judaism, Christianity and Islam believe that their religion is the only true way. Whereas Confucianism, Hinduism and Buddhism are a kind of summarising religion, they are trying to dissolve other opinions and conceptions into themselves, as long as that other idea would not radically differ from their own teachings. Orientalist religions are based on the doctrine of reincarnation and because rebirth is giving an infinite perspective it can give a stable background to the religious patience. Religious impatience comes from the awareness that human life is happening only once and unable to repeat itself.

What different religions have in common that they offer codes of conduct. if one observes these codes he/she can easily notice that usually they are reasonable and rational codes disguised - by a clever and wise person - as a kind of religious rule or code of conduct. But anyway one could easily mix some parts of the doctrines and statements of the different religions up and afterwards hardly anyone would notice even these changes.

Among Hungarian traditions there is a big fast around the time of Easter which coincides with the clearing the toxins out of the body suggested by the doctors and the alternative healers. In Judaism and Islam porkeating prohibition serves the same purpose.

Religions in their original form assure one’s physical and mental health and the harmony with the nature and the universe. The only problem if some fundamentalist and unintelligent people deal with the case of religions and they interpret the other way simple and rational regulations in literal sense and they use these as a weapon against the followers of other conceptions. To sum it all up every morally well-founded religions serve well the development of one’s spiritual, physical and mental state. But like everything else, religions too could be used for bad purposes and that is not the problem of a religion but the follower.

L 220 F

Graham Greene is the kind of writer whose novels and short stories are influenced by his own experiences in life. He does not write directly about his life but his attitude to the phenomena of the world and the things that happen to him can be felt in the ways he makes his stories. The role of childhood experiences, the unpleasant side of life and escapism are important aspects in Greene's life. This essay will examine how and why he deals with them in his works too.

The bad experiences that Greene has during his childhood influence his later life to a great extent. He cannot get rid of the idea that one's personality is determined by the age of 16 and the early negative experiences have special effects on one's whole life. This kind of mentality is due to the fact that as a student he does not live at home but in a dormitory. This means that he has to leave his loving mother with whom he is in a close relationship and that he has to get used to the hostile atmosphere of the dormitory. He has to accept conditions he can hardly bear : he has to adapt to others and has no private life. In addition the headmaster of the school he attends is his father so all the students pick on him, they enjoy ridiculing him. But this is not Greene's fault: he is only the victim of the conditions. What makes it even worse is that their house is on the doorstep of the dormitory and there is a door connecting the two buildings but he is never allowed to open that door and retreat to home. This door appears in some of his books and is called the 'green baize door'. In one of his stories he writes about a madhouse where this door is between the wards and the cell: it connects the world where the mad are 'happy' to live and the world they detest and are afraid of.

Greene's early bad experiences have such a great effect on him that he writes about the importance and influence of childhood in many of his stories. In the 'Innocent' the narrator, who is an adult, tries to compensate for his childhood: as a child he was truly in love with a girl but the affair was 'innocent' because there could be no physical satisfaction, which made him suffer a lot. Therefore now he tries to live a life that is exactly the opposite of his childhood life: it is full of sexual satisfaction, he has as many experiences as possible and has no emotions just plays around with girls. In the 'Shocking Accident' Greene also suggests that one cannot escape from the effects of bad experiences: all the people to whom the main character Jerome tells the story of his father's death laugh-his father died because a pig fell out from a balcony and hit him while walking in the street. For the naive and inexperienced child the main negative experience is not the casualty but people's reactions to the story: when they laugh he is struck by the real world. From then on he developes different methods of telling the story to avoid having the same humiliating experience and qualifies people according to the ways they react: he would not marry a girl who laughed at his story.

Greene's experiences make him obsessed with the dark side of life: his pessimism roots in his childhood because he cannot live the kind of life he wants to live and he can only feel the hostility and spitefulness of people. His pessimism is always there in his stories as a general atmosphere or background. In 'The Destructors' for instance little children deliberately and without any reason destroy someone's house and they laugh at the man's tragedy. So in this story Greene draws attention to the fact that the world is full of hostility, it cannot be changed because evil is in human nature itself, it is even in children and that is the biggest problem. 'The Man Who Stole The Eiffel Tower', which is another short story, also shows Greene's pessimistic point of view: by the fact that in the story someone steals the Tower without anyone noticing it the writer concentrates on the superficiality and indifference of 20th century people.

Apart from his childhood experiences World War II and other events that claimed the death of many people also contribute to Greene's pessimism and focusing on the dark side of life only. He is so concerned about war and terrorism that he even makes some historical references in his stories and in this way he draws attention to the danger and existence of violence in the world. In 'An Old Man's Memory' for example the Channel Tunnel is destroyed by terrorists and Greene refers to actual events that happened in his own life: he mentions the so-called Lockurbie-disaster and another plane destruction when the Americans exploded a plane over the USA because its pilot refused to identify himself and the US thought they were Iranians or spies - in reality they were civilians. The fact that in Greene's life there are so many bloody incidents claiming a lot of victims makes him even more pessimistic and he cannot help concentrating on the unpleasant side of life in his works.

His pessimism is made even stronger by the dehumanisation that he can feel around him as an adult. In his despair he tries to escape from the world he does not like and to create another one where he can find no aggression, no low moral standards and no humiliating effects. First he tries to escape by reading and then later by writing. His escapism can even be detected in the stories themselves: for example in 'The Lottery Ticket' the main character goes on a holiday because he wants to escape from where he lives, he wants to be alone so that he can be happy about coming back. However he finally escapes from where he escaped to.

Considering all these facts one can conclude that Greene's background influences his works. His negative childhood experiences determine his later life to the effect that he becomes a pessimist. His mentality can be felt in his stories because he always focuses on the dark side of life. In other words: what happens to Greene in his life indirectly appears in his works too.

L 219 F

It is on the third of June in 1992. The telephone rings.

" Jane ? How are you?"

"Dad? I'm fine , thanks. And you?"

'Thanks. Jane, happy birthday! Tha call is because I have forgotten to buy flowers. You know, I was in the cemetery at your mother's tomb and I was talking to her for such a long time that
it was evening when I got home. So, I could not buy you anything but to give you my best wishes."

" Thanks. It is like a flower to me. You know in the army almost everyone sent me a red rose but none of them was as beautiful as your wish for happy birthday."

"Darling, would you come to your dad the day after tomorrow? What about celebrating your birthday in a friendly company?"

"All right, dad. As you want. But tomorrow evening Iam going to fly with Kate, you know with that F-117A which had something to repaire in the data recording system."

"Nice. My daughter is a pilot, my son is a businessman. If your mother lived she would make my face squared with her own nails."

"Father, you are great. Let me have a break. Bye!"

She put down the receiver and looked at the clock. It was almost midnight. For her tomorrow will be a hard day, the first test of the data recording system. She began thinking about the system. If it does not function she depends only on the earth control. It did not work always. There is for example the case of her father. He began his service in the army in 1947 with the last model of the ME 163 fighter. It is an old and very dangerous type. The probability that the aircraft catch fire is in a very high percentage. The place of the tank is the worst that can be imagined to say nothing of the pilot's position. When her father's aircraft was taking off one of the wings got on fire. After it her father decided on continuing the taking off and he
succeeded carrying out his task. At landing the only problem was that he was unable to leave the plane so his left leg stucked in and burnt. On this way he was not capable to continue flying so he had to retire.

This happened many years ago. But as she put back the receiver Jane had a very bed feeling. It was similar to that feeling when she and her father flew together at the first time.

Her mother was crying and did not want to watch the event. So she went away in the street to take a taxi and went home. They remained alone. She was frightened. The only question she asked from her father was why her mother went away. Instead of the answer her father pushed her into the cab than she could feel that the aircraft started very slowly than became faster and faster. Suddenly lots of spotlights appeared in front of her and she was siezed with such a fear that she had to close her eyes and was unable to move any more. Then she heard her father ordering her continuosly to open her eyes. When she did it she saw the most beautiful thing that can be seen in the world. The green medows below her and the rivers like a blue ribbon. The whole picture was similar to the one she saw in her story-books.

It was a wonderful experience.

Than the picture became obscurer continuosly and the picture of the yard appeared among the barracks. It remained in her mind almost uneffaceably with its red slag where every morning they had to run great circles on bare-foot and thousands of press-up were required in order to make the body strong as Mr Brown, the captain noticed every occasion. It is such a tiering exercise, she never loved it.

"Good morning ladies and gentlemen. You are listening to channel seven."

It is the reality-she realized in her awakening moment. "Why on earth should I go back in the army?"-asked herself. "Just do it."-heard her father's voice as clearly as at the first
flying. Slowly, very slowly she crawled from the bed then took her uniform that layed on the sofa where she put it two days ago. It was time to go.

At the gate Jim was on the guard so after a kiss she could go on. She presented herself at the post to give the daily order. Coming back to her barrack she stopped at the door and looked
very surprised. The daily order did not contain the test-flying but an order to go in the cemetry for the funeral of captain Brown. He tested the aircraft instead of her. During taking off
one wing of the plane caught fire and the whole machine became a fire- bird. He had enough time to jump out but his parachute was not so strong to bear his weight. Its straps opened at his thighs and he fell down as an object from a height of more than 12000 km. He died on the spot. At his funeral the quality of the FX-10 parachute was not mentioned only his courage that drove him into death. At that moment she thought over the possibility that she could have died on the similar way but at the same time she remembered the feeling of being in the air and seeing the earth like a story-book picture and forgetting everything that is going on the earth. As she thought this the volley could be heard and then the dull sound of the clods.

Arriving back to the barrack she wished for flying. She started the engine of the plane and went higher and higher not noticing that the engine did not function periodically but the
only thing she could concentrate on was to forget everything.

L 218 F

When, some five months ago, I was invited for a three-week-long holiday at one of my distant relation's country house, I did not dare to think that a new way of life would unfold itself, strange but still convincing enough to be adopted.

Maria and Laszlo are a middle-aged couple living in a restored traditional peasant house at the edge of a little village in the western part of Hungary. They moved there about three years ago in order to start a new life. Owing to their invitation for a summer holiday, I could look into the mysteries of the style of their living.

The accommodation took quite a lot of time for me, so I think of describing only the last day's routine, by when I had actually managed to adopt their pace of life. Starting with the morning, I have to remark that it sets in hours earlier than we are accustomed to. The phrases " rise with the lark " and "go to bed with the sun" were completely true for us as sleeping lasted from about 9 o'clock in the evening to about 5 o'clock in the morning. I have non objection to this natural habit; watching TV late at night or dancing at a party till the small hours after a weary weekday is of no use, besides, sleeping hours before midnight are much more valuable than in any other part of the day.

Although there was a little bathroom in the house, we rarely used it; we preferred washing outside, in a deep tub filled with fresh cold water drawn from the well. I particularly enjoyed pacing on the soft grass wet with dew with nothing but a night-dress on me. I was taught some bracing gymnastic exercises, too, which we did jointly and also in the open air every morning.

When one of us got hungry, he or she just walked down to the bottom of the garden, decided which hind of fruit he or she desired most, looked for the right tree or bush and, without any washing, peeling, grating or pressing, ate it in hide and hair. By the way, I learnt some laws restricting eating habits. These include the rule settling that ingestion before noon may consist of fruits only, for these foodstuffs detoxicate the human system, and their active principles are most effective in the late morning hours.

The little garden supplying the family with all the necessary green stuff was a biotic one, that is no sprays and chemical fertilizer were used in it. We usually spent the morning hours there planting, watering, or just ingathering the crops. Then we chose the ingredients of a light midday meal and prepared it in always less than half an hour. The secret of this quickness was the omission of mixing, kneading, cooking, baking or cooling. We took a deep bowl, sliced various kinds of raw vegetables, onion and spices in it, dressed it with cold-pressed oil and dredged some grated nuts over the ready-to-eat vegetable salad.

The afternoon was the time for littering down the stable, rubbing down the horses and harnessing them, ready for riding out to the countryside. The two mares, one of them dark bay, the other yellow, were not runners but still slippy horses that handled well. Riding gallop through the fields, trotting in the woods, riding at a slow-pace through a flat stream made me feel that I am part and parcel of nature, rather than of a smoky, noisy, racing and bumptious civilization, which has more to do with barbarism than with an advanced culture said to have overcome the former.

Arriving home with a pleasant tiredness in the body, we had an abundant bath or went down to the stream and swam a little for limbering up. After having some light meal, we conversed for a while, or one of us read out so that we could discuss the things heard afterwards. Finally, with a last sniff of fresh air, we went to bed. to tell the truth, usually I was the only one doing like this, as Maria and Laszlo preferred making their beds outdoors, which was entirely natural for them and after three weeks quite convincing for me, too.

Leaving the cosy house after three weeks of quiet, calmness and serenity, and after learning the rules of a new outlook upon life more valuable than any other, meant parting from my masters, who opened my eyes to be able to see what is natural, healthy, precious and improver for people in this world.

L 217 F

The aim of my essay is to give a general picture of the participants' opinion about the Language Practice course coded ANG1212, based on a survey among the participants of the course. First I will introduce the course itself, showing its aims that have been stated in the beginning of the semester. I will tell about the participants, and the conditions concerning the sessions. Next, I will show the questions the students participating in the course were asked to answer, indicating the number of answers given to each of these questions. As the questions relate to various subjects, I will evaluate them in question-groups, each of which involves one specific topic, such as the usefulness of the handout, the attitude to the computer system used during the sessions, the expectations and conclusions concerning the course, etc. After evaluating all the question-groups, I will finally draw a conclusion, which will be strictly based on the data reflected by the questionnaires.

Introduction of the course

The Language Practice ANG1212 course this essay aims to reflect on took place at Janus Pannonius University English Department, Pecs, during the spring semester 1996. Twelve students and the tutor, Horvath Jozsef, participated in the sessions held on Mondays, 9.40 am to 12.10 pm. The sessions took place off-campus, in the building of the University Library, in the Arizona Room, which is equipped with a computer system designed for small group discussions.

The aim of the course stated in the syllabus was " facilitate further development of all major language skills" and "to assist students in strengthening skills necessary for passing the end-of-semester Proficiency Exam." (Course Syllabus) It also aimed at studying small group behaviour. To support these aims, additional materials were used, such as the computer system called GroupSystems V, with the help of which small group discussions were possible. The printed additional material included the required reading 1, Wilson, G L and Hanna, M S (1990). Groups in Context. Leadership and Participation in Small Groups, of which photocopies were available for the students, session data printouts and World Wide Web texts, which were available either photocopied or through the WWW.

Introduction of the questions

The students participating in the course were asked to fill in the following questionnaire anonymously. After each question the number of answers is indicated. (A copy of the original Questionnaire is included in the Appendix.)

1. Did you read the whole handout given by the tutor?
a. Yes (2) b. No (10)

2. Did you find the handout useful from language-learning point of view?
a. Yes (7) b. No (5)

3. Did you find the handout useful for learning about behaviour in small groups?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)

4. Have you observed any change in your behaviour in certain groups?
(the change of your roles, etc. )
a. Yes (2) b. No (10)

5. Do you think the group underwent any changes in regarding the roles within it?
a. Yes (5) b. No (7)

6. Can you name the computer program we used during the semester in the sessions?
a. Yes .............................................(10) b. No (2)

7. Did you find the system helpful for discussing certain items?
a. Yes (9) b. No (3)

8. Has your attitude towards computers change in any way? If yes, in what way?
a. Yes .............................................(4) b. No (8)

9. Did you participate in course ANG1113 last semester?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)

10. Did you intend to join course ANG1212 this semester?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)

11. Do you think the fact that the group members were not completely unknown to one another was important regarding the discussions?
a. Yes (12) b. No (0)

12. Have your speaking skills improved as much as you expected it to happen in the beginning of the semester?
a. Yes (1) b. No (11)

13. Have your writing skills improved as much as you expected it to happen in the beginning of the semester?
a. Yes (4) b. No (8)

14. Do you think it is mostly your fault, or the organisation of the sessions played bigger part? 2
a. Yes (Mostly my fault) (7) b. No (The organisation's fault) (4)3

For the essay I also used questions from the Essay Data Collection 4 04/15/1996 (question 15), Essay Data Collection 5 04/15/1996 (question 16), and Essay Data Collection 6 04/15/1996 (question 18). These questions were answered by ten students during the session April 15th, 1996, and were the following:

15. How difficult is it to categorise group members using the book’s 4 ideas?
(The students had to rate the answers on a scale of 1-10, where, the more difficult the categorisation was, the higher number on the scale was marked.)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- - - - 3 2 2 - 2 1
16. Are you an equal member of this group?
a. Yes (10) b. No (0)
18. Was the additional material (compu, list material) useful?
a. Yes (9) b. No (1)

Evaluation of the questions in question-groups

Question-group I. (questions 1-3)
These questions concern the usefulness of the handout for the course:
1. Did you read the whole handout given by the tutor?
a. Yes (2) b. No (10)
2. Did you find the handout useful from language-learning point of view?
a. Yes (7) b. No (5)
3. Did you find the handout useful for learning about behaviour in small groups?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)

Seven students found the text useful from language learning point of view, while eleven of them found it useful for learning about behaviour in small groups. Five participants claimed the text to be useless for language learning, and one person found the handout useless for learning about small group behaviour.

When evaluating the answers to these questions, it is interesting to see that ten people have not read the total of the handout. It must be stated here that the tutor did not insist on the group reading the whole text, but certain chapters of it. Regarding the usefulness, however, it can be questioned whether only parts of the text can substitute the value of the total. Yet, as the whole group, with one exception, was satisfied with what they learnt about small group behaviour , even if not having read the whole handout, it seems that parts can carry through the meaning, or the quality of the whole. Thus, it can be presumed that language-learning characteristics were also present in the read chapters just like those elements related to small group behaviour. The opinions about language-learning characteristics, though, differ from the ones related to small group behaviour. The fact that more students were not satisfied with the language-learning features of the text suggests that the handout was not able to fulfil the requirements regarding this field.

Question-group II. (questions 4, 5, 15)
The questions in this group relate to the roles within the group and the students' behaviour outside the group:

4. Have you observed any change in your behaviour in certain groups? (the change of your roles, etc.)
a. Yes (2) b. No (10)
5. Do you think the group underwent any changes in regarding the roles within it?
a. Yes (5) b. No (7)
15. How difficult is it to categorise group members using the book’s 5 ideas?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- - - - 3 2 2 - 2 1

Ten people have not observed any change in their behaviour in certain groups, which means their roles have not changed. Seven people found that there had been no change of the roles within the group, either.

These answers are interesting to see regarding that among the course's aims one of the important was the study of small group behaviour. This includes the different roles within small groups, participation in discussions, etc. The handout was meant to help in defining the roles.
The fact that only a few participants observed role-changes within the group can be interpreted in two ways:

1. The roles within the group were already established and only minor changes could have happened, thus not every student was able to perceive the changes, but the ones paying close attention. This assumption is supported by the fact that the group members had known one another before from Language Practice course ANG1113, from the previous semester. (For more details about this see Question-group V. pg. 12)

2. The roles were mot established, but recognising the roles was not easy. Question 15. shows that out of ten students, who were present at the session on April 15th, 1996, three found categorising group members using the handout's ideas fairly difficult, and six of them said it was not easy. This can explain why the students have not observed any changes in the roles: setting the basic roles could have meant the main problem, thus changes were even harder to recognise.
In observing changes in the participants' own roles in various groups, the answers can also lead to two assumptions:

1. The participants had stable roles in different groups, that was the reason for the roles not having changed.

2. Categorising using the handout's ideas was difficult, thus the participants had problems in stating their own roles and the changes of them, too.

A main contradiction appears in connection with the answers to questions 1., 4 and 5, and leads to a question: If the handout was useful for learning about small group behaviour e.i. group roles, yet the participants could not recognise the roles, what does the term "useful" correspond to? The explanation can lay in the assumptions to the answers of questions 4. and 5., namely that the handout was useful, but because of stable roles changes have not taken place. Another explanation can be, however, that the participants interpreted term "useful" in a special way. Also it is possible that the students have not observed the roles profoundly. This would explain the usefulness of the handout and the fact that not many role-changes have been observed, by the participants. However, the questions do not look for the reasons, thus these interpretations and explanations remain assumptions.

Question-group III. (questions 6-8)
These questions relate to the computer system used during the sessions, and to a general attitude towards computers:

6. Can you name the computer program we used during the sessions?
a. Yes .............................................(10) b. No (2)
7. Did you find the system helpful for discussing certain items?
a. Yes (9) b. No (3)
8. Has your attitude towards computers changed in any way? If yes, in what way?
a. Yes .............................................(4) b. No (8)

Question 6. is more of a personal curiosity, with which my purpose was not only to put the students' memory to a test, but to measure their attitude to the system. This measuring is based on a hypothesis, according to which people can recall the name of things that are of a certain importance to them better, than of those they have not many interest in. According to this hypothesis, there should be some kind of relation between the answers to questions 6. and 7., namely, that the number of those who found the computer system helpful is likely to show similarity with those who could recall the name of it right. The hypothesis seems to be supported by the answers for the first sight, as two people could not recall the name of the computer system used, and three people found the system not helpful for discussing certain items. However, only one of these people gave answer "No" to both questions, and found GroupSystems not only useless for discussion, but could not recall the name of the program, either. The remaining "No" answers belong to three different people.

Whether the students' attitude towards computers has changed in any way or not, can be seen in the answers to question no. 8. Eight people found that their attitude has not changed, while four people claimed to have experienced some change in theirs. Among those students whose attitude has not changed, it is not indicated what the cause of this stableness may be. They might have had a rather positive relation to computers that was hard to change in any way, or a very negative one, with the same characteristics. For those, however, who have experienced a change in their attitude, the change was positive. All of them got to like or accept computers more than they did in the beginning of the course: "I can accept them, but I'm hopeless at using them." "I'm less scared." "I find it more useful." "I actually started to like them."

Question-group IV. (questions 9, 10, 11, 17)
These questions concern the participants' relationship with one another, and the importance of it:

9. Did you participate in course ANG1113 last semester?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)
10. Did you intend to join course ANG1212 this semester?
a. Yes (11) b. No (1)
11. Do you think the fact that the group members were not completely unknown to one another was important regarding the discussions?
a. Yes (12) b. No (0)
16. Are you an equal member of this group?
a. Yes (10) b. No (0)

Eleven people participated in course ANG1113 last semester, one person did not. Also eleven people intended to join course ANG1212, which means they did not join the course by chance, but they planned it in their schedules. Every student found it important regarding the discussions that they were not completely unknown to one another. Every student out of the ten, who were present on the session on April 15th, 1996, claimed themselves to be equal members of the group.

The data reflected by these answers are important regarding the groups' discussions and the relationships within it. These facts can not only mean support to certain assumptions, as seen in Question-group II., pg. 8, but can show a general feature of well-working groups. Students claim that when having small group discussions, it is important that the members know each other. This can be related to the roles within the group, as in a "new group" the formation of roles takes certain amount of time and discussions about previously set topics is held back more than in a groups with members who know one another. As the members of this group had known each other already, discussion was possible during the first sessions.

Being equal member of a group is also essential to be able to discuss items without tension. As 100% of the students who answered question 16. said they were equal members of the group, it is very likely that discussions were not stopped by tension caused by someone feeling unequal.

Question-group V. (questions 12, 13, 14)
These questions reflect how much the participants' expectations concerning certain language skills have fulfilled by the end of the course.

12. Have your speaking skills improved as much as you expected it to happen in the beginning of the semester?
a. Yes (1) b. No (11)
13. Have your writing skills improved as much as you expected it to happen in the beginning of the semester?
a. Yes (4) b. No (8)
14. Do you think it is mostly your fault, or the organisation of the sessions played bigger part?
a. Yes (Mostly my fault) (7) b. No (The organisation's fault) (4)

Eleven students' speaking skills have not improved as much as they expected it to happen in the beginning of the semester, while eight people think the same regarding their writing skills. Seven people found this improvement was due to themselves or not having improved was their own fault, four people give credit to, or blame, the organisation of the sessions.

As it has been stated in the syllable, the course aimed at improving the major language skills. During the sessions discussions served the speaking practice and home assignments were planned to help improve writing skills. There were also writing exercises during the sessions, most of which were in connection with the study of small group behaviour.

The fact that the majority of the participants were not satisfied with skills' improvement suggests that either the participants' efforts or the methods of the tutor, or both, were not satisfactory. When looking at question 14., it appears that some participants admit to having not made enough effort. In terms of actions this meant not being present at the discussions, and not preparing home assignments for the sessions.

The assumption that the organisation of the sessions was not satisfactory, either, seems to be supported by the answers given to question 2. (Question-group I., pg. 7) As the answers show that some students did not find the handout useful for language-learning, their skills were probably not able to improve at wished rate. However, the answers to question 14. do not show whether the "satisfied" participants gave credit to themselves to to the organisation, and it is not indicated whether the ones not satisfied with the improvements blame themselves or the organisation. As all assumptions supported by certain data, it is likely that mistakes have been made from both sides -- the participants and the tutor's side.

The answers to the questions show the opinions of the students participating in the course. The data carried in the answers seem to be contradictional in some cases and the reasons for the answers are not indicated in the questionnaire. For each question-group a conclusion can be drawn:

Question-group I.
The handout was found useful for the majority of the participants for language learning and for learning about small group behaviour. The fact that not every student was satisfied with the handout suggests that there might have been a better choice of the tutor. The participants, however, seem not to have made as much effort as possible, either, as far as the reading of the handout is concerned.

Question-group II.
A few participants perceived changes of roles within the group or the change of their own roles in various groups. This can either be because of the stableness of the roles or because of the difficulties the role-categorisation caused. It seems that participants have not studied roles profoundly, or because of lack of interest they have not paid close attention. Either the more profound study of roles or the of the instructions of the handout itself, or more interest could have meant more involvement, thus result in a higher rate of realising roles and the changes of roles.

Question-group III.
The computer system GroupSystems V got a positive judgement from the participants. The majority of them found the system useful for discussions and the changes in their attitudes towards computers were all positive. The tutor's decision to use the system appears to be one that had good impact on the discussions.

Question-group IV.
The group members were not unknown to one another, which fact was important regarding the discussions. The members also felt equality within the group. It appears that small group discussions are more effective when members know one another, and feel equal with the group.
This can be useful regarding not only this course, but other seminars, and university groups, too.

Question-group V.
The expectations of most of the participants have not been fulfilled, as far as the language (speaking and writing) skills are concerned. Many participants found the reason of this fact in themselves, while some claimed the organisation of the course for it. Taking all the data into account, both the participants and the tutor made certain mistakes, which altogether resulted the opinions carried in the answers.

When revising all the data from the answers, it appears that the participants are satisfied with some aspects of the course, while not satisfied with others. When looking at the reasons, it can be seen that most assumptions are supported by various facts, and there seems to be no single exact reason, but more factors created the final result. The participants and the tutor of the course all seem to have made both efforts and mistakes, the result of which was a course that has not been useless, and had its positive effects, but one that could have given more

1 In the essay this text will be referred to as "the handout".
2 The author of the questionnaire has made an obvious mistake in this question, and has created an "implicit answer" to the previous questions. As the students have all answered to this question though, having changed it would not have been ethical.
3 As one person has not answered this question, the total of the answers is eleven, not twelve, here.
4 The term "book" here stands for "handout".
5 The term "book" here stands for "handout".

L 216 F

The lobsters' popularity in Western cultures has grown enormously great in this century. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, lobsters or the family Homaridae all belong to the order of Decapoda and to the class of Crustacea. They use their first pair of legs, modified as pincers for grabbing food and fighting. Their other legs, called the swimming legs and a flipper-like tail are used for swimming backwards in the sea. Mainly nocturnal, lobsters scavenge for dead animals, but they also eat live fish, other animals, and seaweed. They may live up to fifty years. This essay aims to give information on travel with lobsters and show some of the researches made to lessen the difficulties of these activities.

Lobsters have been known, both artistically and scientifically, for their affection for travelling. In the field of the fine arts, many artists have dedicated their lives to show this special feature. One of the first descriptions of journeys made by a lobster, is Homar's Odyssey. The hero travels for ten years visiting the famous and infamous sights of the ancient underwater world. In its modern version called On the Road, by Jack Crabouac, the life of a young lobster is told, as he makes his way through the waters of the 20th century American Ocean. In the field of science, as well, many experts have sacrificed their time for studying this characteristic. Horvath Jozsef, a Hungarian aqua-scientist, conducted an experiment last year, with his colleagues at the Computer Assisted Lobster Locating Center in Pecs, Hungary. He implanted signalling devices in one hundred lobsters. Then he monitored them for six months. The record distance journey was 4230 km long, covered by a lobster tagged off at Calais, France and reached shore at Port Jefferson, Long Island, New York, USA. The animals travelled 1500 km on average. The most common destination among them was Canada.

The monotony of long-distance swimming however, has always been intolerable for the majority of lobsters. In the 18th century, Sir Edward Grimm made serious efforts to try to solve this problem and elevate the lobsters' mood, in vain. But in 1865, Lewis Carroll using Grimm's train of thought, invented the Lobster Quadrille, the ultimate solution. This is a dance performed by humans and lobsters. Having formed two lines along the sea-shore, the dancers advance twice, each with a lobster as a partner. They change lobsters and retire. Then they throw the lobsters with a bound into the air as far out to sea as they can. Swim after them, turn a somersault and change lobsters again. Having done this, they go back ashore and start again. During the journeys, it should be danced twice a day. If performed properly, it gives a sense of well-being and satisfaction for both parties.

Even with all the benevolent and soul-elevating features of the Lobster Quadrille, lobsters are prone to melancholy. Their psychological strength can not be compared to that of humans'. Thus lobsters must have the opportunity for solitude. This helps them sorting out their worries, repressed anger, and other negative feelings. Introducing different types of meditation techniques makes them able to overcome the obstacles they are confronted with. Generally, it takes them two to three hours a day to meditate, according to a study made by Dr John Crustace, at the Hydrophil University in Boston. He also asserts that lobsters need at least one six-hour-long sleep a day." Failing to provide this for them," he says " the animals undergo a serious psychological as well as morphological change. They transform into creatures resembling the mixture of a jar of mouldy jam and Johnny Rotten, the lead-singer of the former Sex Pistols band."

Appearance and physical well-being are important factors in a lobster's life. Julian Chelate, a French lobster expert has published an article on what toiletries these animals need for travelling. He states that during the journey, the animals are subjected to various diseases. He advises lobster enthusiasts to take extra precautions, such as coating the lobster skin with special ointment, to prevent the animals from contacting viruses. He suggests that the best product available is castor oil. People should apply this on the hard, rigid rostrum with a piece of loofah sponge. On the soft abdominal part however, it should be applied with soft cotton buds avoiding injuries to the sensitive parts. Pincers need special care to be kept looking and feeling good. To achieve this, Dr Barbara Deccapoda, an etologist from Rome, Italy, considers taking a pedicure set for the travel a very useful idea . She explains that the lobsters may develop allergic symptoms if their nails remain uncleaned for more than three days. For an overall body wash, any type of bath-cremes and salts are adequate, unless they have yarrow among their ingredients.(Yarrow is toxic for lobsters.)

Although there are still several psychological and physical difficulties in relating to lobsters, more and more people find solace in being and travelling with them. Learning to be conscious about their needs is an efficient way to avoid unnecessary irritations for both parties involved. By studying the latest information on lobster travelling and paying extra attention to the lobsters' necessities for frequent entertaining, occasional solitude, and special physical care, humans have all the opportunities for creating an even closer bond between the two species.

L 215 F

Both teacher and student can achieve real success, if they are able to fulfill their appropriate parts in the class. Since the teacher and the students are participants, the interaction should be formed in two directions. First, between the teacher and his students, and second, between the students. The teacher obviously has the role of the leader in the class. In this role his first duty is to be prepared for the lesson. For example a plan is very important. At least the teacher should know what will take place on the lesson, what is the end of it. In the class this plan becomes actions of the teacher, which should be followed by the reactions of the students.

But: Interaction is more than this, more than action followed by reaction .Interaction means acting reciprocally, acting upon each other. The teacher acts upon the class, but the class reaction subsequently modifies his next action, and so on. The class reaction becomes in itself an action, evoking a reaction in the teacher, which influences his subsequent action. There is a constant pattern of mutual influence and adjustment.[1] For instance: if the teacher only follows his plan without responding to the students' reactions, the teacher would fail to achieve any success during the lesson. Probably, this kind of teacher is even not interested in a successful lesson; but what about the students? They will not be satisfied with it, and a conflict would develop. One would neither teach, nor learn in an atmosphere like this. So the plan, though it is still important, can and must change when it comes to reality.

The teacher has other roles as well. For example, he can be a live dictionary for the students. He can simply give the meaning of a word that is unknown for them, or try to interpret it in the language they study. The second one is more useful, because the students first gave a picture about it, and then the actual word. It needs more thinking, and makes easier for the students to remember that word later. Another role for him is the correction. It has many ways. Oral mistakes are less corrected than written ones. Perhaps because during the class more talking took place than writing, and also because talking is more quickly, and there would be no time to correct everything. Written mistakes can be corrected , for instance, by giving simply the right answers. A better way is to mark the words, or phrases that are wrong with different kinds of signs, and ask the students to find out the right answers. Even students can correct each other. The students should participate in as active as they can. They should feel free to ask questions any time they do not understand anything, or they do not agree with that has been said. For example, they can give advices about the plan for the next time, and it can be a cooperative work. This is very important to have this active cooperation between teacher and students, to be together instead of in complete isolation within the class. Successful work is only possible, if both parts can give and receive.

Another important task is about communication. People can communicate most easily with those who have most in common. So the teacher should make an effort to know about his students as much as possible, and also vica versa. Otherwise, the interaction will not work. This is best shown by the following: a new teacher arrives to a school perhaps from abroad, from a different culture, but we do not need to go so far, and he starts teaching, but after a while he would be a bit confused, because the students cannot understand his way of teaching language. It is similar to that, if they spoke different languages. From the point of view of the teacher, the class should not be seen as a mass of students, as something homogeneous, which reacts always the same way. Rather he should take into consideration that the class is consisted of individuals. Each of them have different attitudes towards him. There are students who like speaking and who do not; or it can happen that half of the class is interested in the game that the teacher offered, but still there are students who would like to do something else. This is very difficult to do everything right, to make everybody satisfied.

The interaction between students needs also a kind of giving and receiving, as well as a cooperative work. If the students really want to achieve success in the class, it is easy to do, but if they are uninterested in what their classmates have said, or they do not bear a part in the work, it is very hard. Students should be active, but they should notice the right moment for speaking, and for being in silence, and perhaps for giving the opportunity of speaking to somebody else. The teacher has a serious role here. He is the one who can always pass the ball to those who wait for being asked. Students should know each other also, because if one is alone, and knows nobody in the class, he can have the feeling of expulsion; and it would hold him up to say anything in class. Furthermore, listening to each other is very useful from the point of view of learning. Students can learn much from each other. They can improve their pronounciation, extend their vocabulary, and so on. Nevertheless, when "...teaching is undertaken...learning can occur. Hence the success of any lesson can best be judged in terms of the learning, that results from it, in terms of the learners' reactions to the teacher's action."[2]

L 214 F

It is said and known, that the United States of America is not the safest place to live in. The figures show, that in proportion to population the United States is one of the most, if not the most dangerous land on Earth . Through the means of mass communication anyone can get aquainted with the state of affairs on the far side of the Atlantic Ocean. A lot of foreigner viewers state, that the news is overwhelmed by reports about wars, assasinations, murders, violence. Obviously crime is one of the hottest topics and most serious problem of American citizens. Crime concerns them all, especially violent crime touches the public mind. Violent crime is a class of offenses, which are against person. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation the most serious offenses classified as violent crimes are: aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, and robbery.

About 10 percent of the offenses reported in 1983 were for crimes against person. Many people think, that most arrest are made for serious crimes, but this is not true. (The most frequent arrests in the U.S. are made for driving under the influence of liquor and narcotics, drunkenness, and vagrancy). The public belief, that serious violent crimes are major offences is due to the press, which naturally puts a special emphasis on violent crime (often for financial reasons). Sometimes mass communication suggests, that the situation is desperate, and it exaggerates the problem.

Since violence has been reported, experts have been trying to give an explanation to the question: Why is violent crime so high in the USA. Everyday violence has various reasons in the USA. Going back in time, and looking for some historical and traditional reasons one can see, that during the colonization, and afterwards during the independence movement a lot of controversy occured. Frequently violence and shooting were the easiest way to a solution. In the "Wild West" farmers, sheep herders, cattle breeders did not sit down to negotiate whose the land would be. They had gathered their employees and they had been fighting till somebody won. The "tooth for tooth, eye for eye" moral had come across until the police appeared on the west.

Since then the police have got a lot to do. In the 20th century, during the period of "Prohibition" (1919-1933) a huge network of corruption and blackmail and gang rivalry grew. When this era elapsed the network of organised crime turned to other kinds of activity (e.g. drugs, large scale-robbery etc.). Nowadays still lots of violent crime can be connected with reckoning between two gangs or organizations.

Of course, violence cannot be correlated merely with the gangland. There are individual criminals whose social condition forces them to commit a crime. The highest crime rates occur in the most deprived sections of large cities. Slum areas are unprovided with well-equipped schools and possibilities of employment. For many young people the one and only chance to escape from boredom is going out to the streets, which are scenes of crime and vice (gambling, prostitution, drug abuse). Unfortunately, the residents of these areas are blacks or other minority groups. As a result, these people are considered to be misdemeanant.

Sad to say, but these citizens are afraid of both criminals and policemen, thus they refuse to cooperate with police, therefore police can not work effectively. The efficiency of the police is not only a matter of relationship to the citizens. Public opinion polls show, that Americans think police have not enough officer. Citizens unanimously believe, that there would be less violence on the streets if there were more patrols. Also, it is a well-known fact, that the U.S.A. is the land, where human rights are taken into consideration. In certain cases we witness, that human rights hinder and tie the investigation. Of course some way or another the police can go into action, but because of some official process the criminal can gain time.

Finally, a further cause of violent crime in the U.S. should be mentioned. And this is a cultural one. Many experts say, that films are to be blamed for the excessively high rate of violent crime. At the beginning of the 1980's a large number of action-films appeared on the screen. These films had a great influence on young people, who as a result, learnt a rather violent morals, and violent problem solving. Young people and some weak-nerved adult approved this behaviour, and violence penetrated into their life.

The government can take legal measures in order to improve the situation. First of all stricter laws and punishment can be initiated. The two issues, which are in focus now are death penalty and gun control. Death penalty was considered to be "cruel and unusual" punishment by Supreme Court in 1972. Meanwhile the number of murders had been growing. Public opinion polls were showing a massive support for the return of the use of capital punishment. In 1975 it was allowed again in certain circumstances. The number of murders had declined by a fifth. But capital punishment is still not a common one, even in death penalty states most murders do not qualify for it.

The other important issue is gun control. It is even more controversial, than the question of death penalty. Approximately 50 percent of murders are commited with handguns. It is possible, because handguns can be bought so easily. Some states have certain restrictions on the open sale, some do not have any. Unfortunately, those who want to restrict public access to guns cannot argue effectively against one of the most powerful pressure groups, the National Rifle Association. NRA is a conservative lobby, which refer to the 2nd Amendment to the Constitution, saying: "the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed". In 1986 some restrictions were passed, but adequate control of guns will not be easily achieved.
Obviously, these antagonistic interests are difficult to bridge. The opponents have to compromise, so that not any kind of radical solution is possible. But other problems are not so ticklish. For example the press should be forced to give a lesser publicity to violent criminal cases. The same could be done with TV channels and movies. One could say, that this is a violence against the 1st Amendment to the Constitution, according to the freedom of press, but this shall not be a censorship just a kind of agreement, that would regulate presenting violent films, news and so on. On the other hand bureaucracies should be decreased, in order to let the police act much faster. The effective force should be extended, and more patrol should be sent out to the streets, especially to the slum areas. Finally, the Government should take measures in order to improve the circumstances in the deprived city areas. Of course, this essay does not enumerate all of the problems, and does not give an answer to all of the questions, but it shows, that by compromise the situation can be improved. Even if some measure is seemingly unconstitutional, or limiting personal freedom, by these changes the American society would win more, than it would lose.

L 213 F

It is a quite difficult question to rate the way that my parents brought me up because in rating them I rate myself. If I say that my parents brought me up perfectly, I say that I am an ideal grown-up who is well-mannered. In this case I would say that I always know what to do and I always do it in good time. Of course it would not be a true way to declare myself. But if I say that my parents brought me up badly, so I would be saying that I am a badly brought up adult then.

So all things considered I can maintain that I am an average well-mannered young person.

We talked a lot about this problem with my parents and we discussed how we could have done things differently. I feel we agree on the basic questions, on essentials.

I owe a lot to my parents. They always listened to me and made me feel like and independent person who may have different tastes and opinions from theirs. They spent a lot of time with me and never misled me. They tried to teach me to be strong and get ahead and make my way in life without asking for any help.

Of course I can see their mistakes because I recognized them, to my cost. For instance I did not receive enough encouragement from them and they never wanted to stimulate me to do better at school. They were always satisfied with me and my results.

They never took me to visit other families and other children because they did not have any friends.

I had never played with other children of the same age before nursery school and that is why in the nursery school I followed the nursery school mistress instead of making friends with the children.

Criticizing my parents is an easy thing to do but I may make the same mistakes when I am a parent. I do not know whether I will make a good one or not because it might turn out than my children would be asked the same questions. It will take years before my children can answer these questions. I am nineteen years old now and I do not want to have a baby during the next five years. Of course I have some ideas of bringing up a baby, but they are always changing.

First I think nursing a baby starts not with the birth but before it, when a women notices that she is going to have a baby. I would like to plan for this moment, not only become pregnant by chance. I would like to have a job to earn enough money to live on in comfortable circumstances and to have the financial means to buy all that the baby needs.

Then I have to take the doctor's advice in dieting, do the recommended exercises, and other things. These conditions (financial needs, diet) are essential before the baby' s birth but it is a substantial part of nursing, because these are conditions of having a mentally and physically healthy child.

The real bringing up starts at the moment of birth. In the early time (zero - three years old) the most important thing is the close contact between the mother and the little baby. It is important to talk to the little baby from the beginning, for example while feeding her. She does not understand our words but she gets used to being listened to and she will soon smile at us. If this contact develops during the first years it will help a lot when the first problems appear.

These first problems appear in nursery school and in primary school. Nursery school is the first real place for the baby to pass out from the familiar surroundings. She is alone and separated from her mother. We have to help the child to prepare for nursery. I will try to do this by a gradual increase in the hours she has to spend in nursery school. First I will leave her there only for four hours because I would like her to be accustomed to being among children. I do not like her to be bored at home and then suffer from the lack of adopting herself to new surroundings. At the same time she will know that I will always arrive at the nursery on time in order to bring her home. So she will not be afraid of being left in the nursery for ever. I will always listen to her when she talks about what happen to her and what she does in the nursery school. I will never tell her to go away because I have not got time for her, because she may not want to tell about it later.

If it could be done I believe it would help us (the parents and the baby) to overcome difficulties in school.

School is the place where most children are or can be hurt. She arrives at a new place with new faces around her and in addition, she has got duties which she did not have before. She has to feel that we will assist, and we are always besides her whatever she does.
I would like to do common programmes with her, for example we will walk an hour every day together. I would enjoy providing every possibility for her to talk about her problems and give her opinion. She will choose her school-bag and the cloth she wears because I would like her to feel that she is important and has got a chance to decide. I will always encourage and praise her for doing anything well because I would like her to become self-confident adult.

I would never tell her a lie. Telling lies to a child poisons everything. Standing in front of the hospital I will never say that taking a blood-test will not cause any pain. I will say that it gives a little pain and she has to stand it because she is old enough.

I reckon that if we deal with a child as an equal from the first time than, she will become a teenager who shares her problems with us. I would enjoy becoming a good parent. I will accept and like her with her faults and I hope it will be enough. Perhaps I will not be worse than the others. I will not make a perfect parent but I will try to be a good one.

L 212 F

The child is father of the man. As the saying suggests the experiences of childhood determine a person's character as an adult. A child is a small human being who needs 15-20 years to become a parent good enough to provide his or her own child with the essential advice and help for life. Parents teach their children with the aim to make them able to begin their own life. The question is what way should it happen. Whether it is better to fill their cerebral convolutions up with dry facts in two hours five times a week and hope that the next Einstein is going to enhance the family's reputation, or we had better give thanks that our offspring is given a happy childhood in today's rather neurotic world.

The Better Baby Institute founded in America implies the first one. Where else could this idea find more fans if not in the 'Land of Dreams' where everything is possible even producing an unsurpassable genius from our child by following the 89 instructions of Mr Glenn Doman, who guarantees satisfaction in return for $490. It has been left out from the 'recepee' that every child has a different character so they probably also need a different treatment. It would be against nature to force a child to do something it is not comfortable with. The only truth in the article is that an average child is capable of attaining much more information than a well-educated adult, but yet at the school it becomes clear what its real fields of interests are. A child who is superb at all subjects, either has a high IQ-rate or has a botched up childhood of not having enough time to relax because of learning constantly. Parents cannot multiply their child's intelligence by overwhelming them with data. A child is not a speciman copy to amaze the neighbours. Children have their own inside world and the main task of parents is to show them the way how to find happiness and satisfaction in life. A child is innately innocent and naive trying to imitate the adult's life and behaviour. Children believe everything they hear and see is true and it depends merely on us what they will turn out to be in their adulthood. We have to look after them with responsibility for their future being prepared to answer all their questions and showing our love so that they could feel secure. Children often find themselves in situations which they need to understand to become gradually mature.

Everybody of us is contuniously seeking the aim of our life and children are the same. Parents have to take time to explain them the unknown parts of life to strengthen their self-confidence so to be able to come to deceisons in certain situations later when being on their own. There must be a trustful relationship between the child and the tutor to give the child the feeling that its problems and mixed up feelings from the events happening around can find solution and that later he or she will be able to overcome the difficulties coming in way.That should be the way of preparing them for independent life.

A very sad characteristic of our age is the disappearing of real fairytales and bed-time stories. Instead of that kids are playing with Barbie-dolls dressed in tiny posh evening dresses what absolutely distorts their sense of reality. They are stuck to computer games all day long growing up not being able to distinguish a horse from a cow. Apart from parents it is exactly the fairytales that can give the child solution for their problems. It has been the entire task of fairytales ever since they exist. Today, as well as in the old times, they could teach both talented and average children to recognize the higher values of life, they can show what experiences a child needs to have its character improved. Fairytales suggest that anybody can reach a happy full life but only on condition that one does not run away from difficulties because the way to a real personality leads through learning. Bedtime stories should take a great part in children's education and parents should put emphasis on providing them with story books and discussing the moral of them with their children.

There was no need for a 'hyper-super' toy for Mozart to become a genius, if somebody gets the right amount of stimuli and has the essential gene group, it will probably show its effect. It is naturally given to our world that the relation between people with high IQ and people less clever is in balance. We cannot expect everybody to give a performance above average because the results might not satisfy us. Let's take look at the suicide level of the Japanese students. Parents rushing their children into studies often do not even relize to what degree they burden their children.

L 211 F

Lately the number of accidents caused by dogs has increased. More and more dog-owner choose powerful dogs to keep. Unfortunately some of them has been trained for fights. As a reaction a new law has been brought in that forbids dog fights, keeping and breeding the "killer" dogs in Hungary.

When puppies are born they are staying with their mother for two months than an owner-to-be comes to choose one or two of them. The pup is taken home to the new master. Without its mother he excepts the owner as "the leader of the pack" and does everything he is told to do.

Most of the dog-owners are families or people who need company and their dogs are treated fairly well. Others need work-dogs for helping in farms, protecting the house or the master. The police, the army and rescuers need them for capturing criminals, detecting drug and bomb, saving human lifes in danger.

There is a small group of people who train dogs to fight. They usually select dogs which are middle size and weight, very tough but also agile. They bring them up by teaching them how to kill, fight and destroy other dogs. For this purpose these sick minded people often get dogs from dogcatchers or even steal beloved pets to be torn apart by their dogs. When they are satisfied with the result they take the dogs to competitions, where they bet and enjoy the match. The lucky ones usually win a large sum of money so they can buy even more dogs and earn more money. The winner dogs get their reward as well: they stay alive. The cute and cuddly pups are adult dogs now fighting for their lives.

Sometimes the police recovers the competitions and the participants of these forbidden events are fined for only a small amount of money compare to the profit they make. In certain cases the dogs are not only taken away but also put off because they are said to be dangerous to man. Unfortunately the dog pays the price of the human’s fault.

Why do people call only these dogs dangerous? They have been trained to kill dogs and not man. What is more, every dog has teeth to bite with so they all can be equally dangerous. Humans are distinguished from animals by thinking and living in civilization so humans have to find out what motivates a dog to attack in order to avoid an unwanted bite. Usually a dog bites when it is protecting its territory, food or master, uncertain what to do or just simply afraid. By staring straight into a dog’s eyes can mean domination and a call for fight, in which they will decide which one of them is the dominant, but at that moment when one is showing the pose of subordination they stop because there is no more reason for the fight. It is an unnatural situation when they are forced to compete and kill in the ring.

In spite of the fact that we see dogs dangerous in many situation (in dogfights, when one walks the dog without led and even when an old lady is gesticulating wildly with her shopping bag towards the dog, which has been calm and behaving properly till that moment) we should respect them because we need them. Thousands of years ago when humans met the dog it became not only a domestic animal but they are also our best and most faithful friends. Their whole life depends on us.

It is shameful that some have not learned yet what responsibility is.

L 210 F

I have been interested in biology since my childhood very much.

In grammar school I decided to choose a job that is in connection with this science. I am especially interested in reading about our nervous system and dealing with human speech. For I had a liking for grammar in my former schools, I decided to study linguistics at the university. There are some parts of linguistics that are in connection with biology

( e. g. phonetics ). As I mentioned my interest in human speech derives from my childhood. In elementary school one of my best friends stammered. He often had difficulties communicating with teachers and us too, but he was very clever. He was brought to doctors and psychologists every month. Luckily he has already recovered. Today he is a student at ELTE University and going to become a physisist.

Problems of speech derive from our brain. Last year one of my teachers called my attention to an interesting disease. It is called aphasy. I had not known of this problem before then. He aroused my interest very much, so I decided to read some books of it.

First I found a fascinating book by Lurija. Lurija is a Russian psychologist who deals with aphasic people as well. According to her there are two types of this disease. Sometimes people are born with it, but there are many cases when it gradually evolves during their lives. There are many symptoms of it. The most frequent examples are the following:

There are people who can repeat everything that you say to them, moreover they are able to repeat even very long sentences. But they are incapable of expressing their own thoughts. Sorrowly while repeating your sentence they do not have any ideas what they speak about at that time.

There is another sign of aphasia. Some aphasic people can create sentences and express themselves, but you can gradually notice some kind of quickening in their speech pace, and they might become agressive soon because of losing their control.

There are some aphasic people who mix two or more speech sounds. Some of them can not differenciate grammatical categories so they are not able to understand others’ thoughts. I have heared of a man who can not decide which words he should take the stress on in the sentences and can dot establish where the end of the sentences are.

I found a remarkable example which was the most interesting to me. Some aphasic people can understand many parts of the sentences, but they are not able to understand different
connections between its subjects. So if you say ` my mother’s daughter` they will not know whose mother and whose daughter you speak about. They probably will not understand even the connection between the mother and the daughter.

Doctors and psychologists have been engaged in this sickness for some decades.

Only very few linguists have been dealing with this problem since the 1960s. As far as I know there is only one grammarian in Hungary who exemines aphasy philologically today. He tries to find some regularities in aphasy. This way he could connect his science with medical science and psychology. He has already gave some lectures about this disease at our university as well.

I have also read an interesting article about this problem in another book some weeks ago. Its title is Sound, Sign and Poem edited by Noam Chomsky. The author of the article is Roman
Jacobson, the famous linguist. Jacobson's book examines the disease philologically.

Jacobson mentions some grammarians in his article who dealt with aphasy much earlier, but as far as I know these researches were quite primitive.

Nowadays there are many linguists especially in Western Europe and the US who try to find the origin of this disease. They believe in its philological provenance.

Some aphasic people can live at home. They spend their time in hospital only about once a month. Many of them have to go to hospital just for control. Those whose disease is very deep have to stay always in hospital. They are treated in a part of the neurological ward. Aphasic people are not treated in every hospital, but as far as I know there is an aphasic ward here in Pecs for example.

Today people are much more interested in diseases that are in connection with brain than some decades ago. This fact is exemplified by some books like The Brain written by Robin Cook.
There are even some films that are about similar problems like Coma.

Sorrowly there have been more and more people suffering from diseases especially since atomic disasters. It is only to be hoped that human beings will be able to counteract the growth of such problems with the greatest possible care.

L 209 F

I think the tree most important qualities of an ideal parent are: to be affectionate, understanding and influential.

Nowadays there are more and more children who don't get on well with their parents, but I think it is very important to be a good relationship between a child and a parent. The most important thing in the relation of a child and a parent that they can understand each other, to speak about daily and also about personal problems. I think a good parent can talk almost about everything with his/her child. The best is if they are on friendly terms. In this case they don't feel strangerity in the presence of each other. There won't be secrets of the child, he/she will share his/her difficulties with his/her parents and won't be afraid of the consequences. He/she dares to say if he/she has done something bad. It is the primary condition of the honesty. But the bad relation can cause many quarrelling. The child doesn't dare to say about personal problems rather he/she turns to his/her friends. He/she doesn't like being at home, he/she often goes home late because he/she likes to be with his/her friends. At the worst his/her friends can directe his/her to the wrong way. He/she completely becomes alienated from his/her parents and even he/she doesn't listen to them. Their relation become unhappy, but in many cases the parents try to make it better often too late. This bad contact can be prevented if the parents bring up their children to be honest. But a good relation require not only understanding but even require to have influence of the parent. It's no good if a child doesn't respect his/her parents. The parents can order their children if it needs. Don't allow everything to their children, a child have to know what he/she can do and can't do. But at the same time the parents have to be indulgent. I mean they don't be so serious, for example don't beat their children if they have done something bad because usually it is no effective but I don't say that sometimes it doesn't serves them right. I think it is also important that the children address their parents as 'mother' and 'father' and do not call them by their christian names because it doesn't express prestige in the direction of the parents. It is also a great regard for the parent if the child doesn't talk back. The third most important quality of a parent is to be loving. It means that they can lough, speak and cry together with their children. It is important for a child to feel the love of his/her parents. A good parent can always help his/her child at any time, if the child turn to him/her he/she doesn't say that he/she has no time to help or 'I am tired'. For example they play with the children or help them to do the homework and hears the lesson. He/she always interested in the problems of his/her child. Parents can also express their love by touching their children while they are talking or waking up their children with caressing and they tell a tale in the evenings. But it is no good if the parents overdo the love because the child becomes spoiled. For example parents don't present always their child if he/she behaves sensibly or does something well because later the child will always expect the present.

In a word to bring up a child is a very difficult task what parents can do only with patience, understanding and loving.

L 208 F

The output of the Press is determined by the social structure and political interests and views of the country, by the commercial structure, that is the financial support and institutions in the background and by the readership of the newspapers. All of these factors make their influence felt on what is published as news in the papers.
U.S., the political, economic and military 'superpower', takes part in the world's most significant events or at least concerned indirectly. From the current events happening in the world during a week an American newsmagazine includes news items connected to its territory, culture and people. That is why Time deals with happenings from each continent that somehow relevant to the U.S., and the vast majority of the other events are not mentioned.
After determining what the fundamental ideas are in the content of the newspapers, the next step is to describe and characterize the item that is called news, reported in the newsmagazines, to explain why some of the events are thought to be more important than the others, from the series of events which are those that are mentioned, who selects the events and what the basics of selection are.
Events become news if they are selected or if they can be regarded and presented as newsworthy. The fact that something happened is not enough in itself. During the selection news undergoes transformation and treatment according to political, economical and social factors. That is why newspapers report differently in both content and presentation. "...all news is always reported from some particular angle." (Roger Fowler, p.10) So news is not only based on proven sources, but gives a particular view of the world at the same time.
The whole selection is made according to set of categories of newsworthiness. The more of them an event satisfies, the more likely it is to become news. The criteria events have to fulfill are called news values, which include several factors.
Negative events like damage, death, rape, murder and injury etc. are more likely to be reported than everyday stories. For the rest of the people it has psychic background. Tolsztoj's Ivan Iljics' death could illustrate it well. There is a sentence in it, something like Kay is dead, but I am not Kay. Its message is that Ivan Iljics goes to the funeral to see the widow and her children, to smell death, but he can not believe that the whole could happen to him as well. This is the same with people. They like taking delight in and revel in the stories, problems and negativity of the others, while they do not realize that they could be in the place of one of the victims, and they feel pleasure that they are outsiders. For the other part of the people reading about negative events is a refuge and 'community of interests'. They endured something bad or terrible earlier and while reading these negativities they feel that they are not the only ones to whom those awkward events happened.
Numerals play an important role in arousing the readers interest. It is called 'threshold'. Those happenings, which include several participants (that can be human beings, animals, vehicles, objects etc.) will attract more attention. Like in the IRA case where 100 people were injured, 39 needing hospital treatment, six of them seriously wounded and two people died. Or in the aircraft crash where 176 passengers and 13 crew members died.
Personalization, reference to people, is a significant factor in newspapers. Events, which contain stories about individual persons become news. This category may include references to political personalities, pop personalities, sports people, television personalities etc. Readers are usually interested in personal details, concreteness of individuals, others life or as regards politicians readers like to be informed about their work, speeches and acts.
Relevance, in respect of newsworthiness, means those happenings, which effects or the happenings in themselves have something in common with the readers own lives, because e.g. the same risks, processes or events may exist in their country or in their everydays. Closeness in itself is not equal to relevance. The IRA bomb strike for example is not relevant to Scotland, the whole attempt was undoubtedly against England. Air and river pollution, industrial accidents, natural disasters are typical instances apart from distance.
Elitness, reference to elite nations such as Japan the USA, England, elit people such as politicians, movie and pop stars, famous business people or Queen Elizabeth etc. are highly newsworthy.

There are several more factors, but in the list those elements are mentioned, which are identified in the articles.


This is a highly newsworthy event, because satisfies several news stereotypes.

Negativity, as an IRA terror bomb exploded in London at South Quay station near an elevated railway, after the Aug. 31, 1994 IRA declaration of cease-fire, ending 17 months and 10 days of peace. The pictures support the dread of the event. A man with bleeding body, the remains of the buildings and a picture from the 1993.

The attempt is significant on criteria 'threshold'. 100 people were injured, 39 needing hospital treatment, six of them seriously wounded and the following day two newsstand workers bodies were found after the bomb packing half-ton explosives went off at 7:01 pm on Febr. 9, devastating five nearby buildings, two of them left partly demolished.

As the Irish problem has been appearing on the agenda since Cromwell brutally 'settled down' in Northern Ireland, and the 1798 uprising against the British rule it was in a sense expected despite the British and Irish governments "all-party talks" and agreement. Over a quarter-century 3170 people died due to the conflict and differences between the Roman Catholics and Protestants. The enclosed Bloody History chart introduces the main steps between the two countries and attacks of IRA against the British from April 24, 1993 to their latest attempt. In 1993 in London's financial district an IRA bomb exploded killing one and injuring 45 people. So the Febr. 9, 1996 event increased the British anxiety about starting up the whole fighting again. A quote from 1921, published in Newsweek reporting the same event can illustrate the fundamentals and the origin of this contrast between the two countries. 'this is Ireland, where the ghosts of the past sit on the shoulders of today's little heroes, beckoning them to the grave.'
The constuction of the headline may have a figurative content. The word blown-away, refers to something physical, material and has undoubted outcome, is connected to the word hopes, which is mental and include uncertainty. In the combination of the headline this mental thing is affected in material way by an action.

Death at a Discount

This event introduce the productive interaction between the news media, the public and official agencies. There is a process. A fatal accident or crash is reported in the newsmagazine with its every little and real detail; the spokeman of professional pilots' association 'criticized the safety and maintenance practices of charter firms'; the statement that 'European vacation market, catering to vacationers more concerned about price than safety,' and the circumstances surrounding the crash may have been too typical; the background information about flights, all these confirm fears about the danger associated with cheap tickets and charter flights. And here appears the public, because the listed facts touch public and personal daily life. 'Whatever is found to be the immediate cause of the crash' the demand for cut-rate-vacation will decline, suspicion will arise toward low prices and the ferocious competition in the charter business will lie behind at least temporary. This accident becomes relevant this way not only to German travellers, but to travellers from every part of the world, because similar risks may exist in other countries. The official agencies are going to review, examine the safety and maintenance standards of flights due to the accident, as it happened in this case. The day after the crash a Birgen Air flight was delayed because its documents were incomplete.

Death at a Discount. There is a some kind of contradiction in the headline. Death is negative while discount is positive word. This solution gives a stress and attracts attention. The description of physical state, death and the reference to a circumstance, at a discount in the headline, both beginning with capital d, emphasize the fatality of the event as it was 'the worst such accident in German travel history.'

As regards news values, it is a negative event. The chartered Boeing 757 carrying German and Polish tourists from Puerto Plata to Berlin and Frankfurt plummeted into the sea. The enclosed photographs introduce the fate of the charter flight. Broken bodies, remnants of tourists, clothes and the rescue workers' attempt at gathering the corpses' remains. In the smaller one the grief of the passengers relatives.

The number of the victims involved in the accident make the event newsworthy as well. 176 passengers and 13 crew members died, there were no survivors.

The crash of the charter flight was unpredictable and unexpected, although Alas Flight 301 stopped operating because of inadequate safety and maintenance standards. But later resumed flights by renting planes from a Turkey firm, Birgen Air. One of the three rented planes was the fatal Boeing 757.

Newspapers contain stories about individual persons. References to people is an important factor and become news stories. Elit persons or ordinary persons doing something unusual and significant or just unnamed people involved in a negative, sudden or general event, like victims of an airplane crash or earthquake.

In specialized pages, in Time back on the news pages, one can read about pop personalities, sports people or television personalities. These articles contain concretness of individual reference, personal details such as age, residence, job or personal appearances with enclosed photographs. The world reported by the popular Press is 'a culturally organized set of categories'. It is like an illusion. It illustrates a person as a member of a certain type. Readers think about that person as the qualities the category, according to the readers, embodies. In some cases individuals loose their personal features, because this categorization establishes value judgement, which become permanent, usual and used often emphasizing those values that are believed to be appropriate to the type.

In people column there are articles of popular people with enclosed photographs, which not always portray natural position and the strict reality. The 'stars' are put into adventageous postures, they always have artificial smiles on their face, loose the natural, 'palpable' features and embody a world, which is unattainable for the ordinary people. All these elements cause the readers to establish the above mentioned categorization and value judgement and produce an illusion using imagination without being conscious of it. Compared to the articles, topics and photoes published in the fore-part of the newsmagazine these factors also determine the newsworthiness and news values. The content of them are rather treat, interesting pieces than officially confirmed facts.


This article reveals concretness about the personality of Hakeem Olajuwon. The age, he is 33, the profession, he is one of the best players in the National Basketball Association, the religion, he is devout Muslim (religion is one of the ticklish topics), the origin, he is Nigerian-born and the believes.

If you meet someone personally for the first time you would rarely be informed more thoroughly or detailed.

Pearls Are a Girl's Best Friend

The vocabulary items, like beauty, talent, charisma, diva, public, timing, superstar, marital legend, TV appearance, self-promotion and the construction, like but darlings..., And did we mention that diva..., are typical back on the news pages.

References to politicians satisfy personalization and elitness as well. Newsmagazines include reports of statements, promises, judgements, parliamentary debates, political manifestos of prominent people. Fowler drew up one of the clues:

'Accessed voices', as Hartley calls them, are the views and styles of a privileged body of politicians, civil servants,...,experts of various kinds...etc. Access is a reciprocal relationship between such people and the media; the media conventionally expect and receive the right of access to the statements of these individuals, because the individuals have roles in the public domain; and reciprocally these people receive access to the columns of the papers when they wish to air their views.

This access becomes an important factor e.g. during the election campaign.

Abroad with Forbes

Michael Kramer asked the Republican candidate Steve Forbes about China, and this is the text of that interview, quoting Forbes' own statements in connection with his foreign policy.
Discrimination is in more than one respect a part of personalization. The stereotype that a culture has conventionally assigned to blacks, a special group with its own peculiar characteristics, is applied and affect the individuals, who allegedly, supposedly belong to that group.

The significance of this happening is exceed personalization. In normal circumstances one would say that it is satisfies personalization because something unusual, negative happened to an ordinary person. The fundamentals of the event is that Cynthia Wiggins, who was 17 years old died on the morning of Dec. 14., as 'she was hit by a 10-ton dump truck.' Some concreteness of her personality are introduced. She was engaged, she wanted to become a doctor, she boarded the No. 6 bus in the Buffalo suburbs, she worked in Cheektowaga as a cashier at Arthur Treacher's Fish Chips. Her colour, she was black, which makes the event more than personalization, takes the whole problem to refer to relevance as well. The reason of her death was that Wiggins had to get out of the bus 275 m away on a seven-lane highway with no sidewalk, because the bus was not allowed on mall property. The fact that the bus carrying inner-city blacks to work was not allowed on mall property suggests the idea or has the effect that no blacks allowed and, as Henry Louis Taylor determined it, it is 'guiltless racism.'

The vocabulary items of the article, like allow, was not allowed, blame, sanitized, guiltless racism, had to..., minorities, keep blacks under surveilance, unwanted Nigger, separate localities, regulate, racial restrictions, rules and regulations, racial discrimination are all emphasize the provided unequal chances, the fact that blacks are percieved not as their own persons and qualification, but as the 'qualities' and prejudice, which have stereotypically assigned to the group or, if people are categorized in terms of colours, whites feel ascribed authority to control the blacks' actions and liberties.

The black problem and the discrimination are not simply the question of the present. The whole began in the South with slavery, which went on with repression and discrimination strengthened by federal laws. After abolishing slavery in 1865 a series of segregation laws came in the South, which required that whites and blacks use separate public facilities. These were the separate but equal laws. For more than fifty years many states used this to segregate races and it seems that some motives can be found today as well.

Chips Ahoy

'Cultural proximity' and relevance are the significant factors here. The starting-point is that researchers in the U.S. made a study analyzing programs of TV in mid-90's America, which concluded that the link between TV violence and aggressive behaviour is no longer in doubt. (So it is made in America by Americans.) Therefore the phenomenon reported in the news item has an effect on the audience's own life and the topic in itself is up-to-date. Many parents worry that this kind of TV programs do irreparable harm to their children. To solve this problem somehow, President Clinton signed into the telecommunication bill and launched the era of the V chip, which offers the solution for parents. This equipment enables them to keep those programes out that have been labeled as high in violence, sex etc. The whole process is not only relevant to the U.S., but to most countries, because, as American films and movies are broadcast almost all over the world, the same risks may exist there.

This question concerned politicians, like Clinton, Paul Simon, Joseph Lieberman, Bob Dole, so elitness is presented. Another factor is threshold, the numerals, as the details are mentioned e.g. nearly 2700 shows analyzed in a 20-week survey of 23 channels.

Apart from the above mentioned news values this article is important, because it has an informing role, it introduces the problem and gives the solution at the same time.

Each paper has a particular organizational framework, readership and sense of news. The organization of the newspaper, the format of the page, the number, size and place of photographs, charts, maps, style and size of print are all significant factors of newspaper representation.

Differences in drafting and style carry ideological distinctions. As it is mentioned in the first part, during the selection news undergoes some transformation according to political, economical and social factors. That is why different newspapers report differently in both content and presentation. The same topic, sources will appear differently in papers.

The representation of the cover story, IRA terror bomb exploded in London, ending 17 months and 10 days of peace, suggests a sense of ideological distinction between Time and Newsweek. In Newsweek, on the front-page, there is an old, grey-haired and bespectacled man covered up in a red cloth with a bleeding head. The headline, Broken Peace The IRA Bombs London, consists one circumstance that the whole happened in London. Compared this to the front-page of Time, here the enclosed photograph and the organization of the text and the page seem a little bit theatrical and it produces a psychic effect on the reader. As regards Time, the case in point appears without picture on the front-page. In stead of peace the word cease-fire is used, which does not mean the same. Peace is an ended and permanent state, while cease-fire is transitional. In the headline more circumstances are included. The event happened in London, shattered nearly 18 months of peace, and its effect, apart from the victims, is that it brings back the dread. There is a particularity that the background of the word broken is a fire and in the illustration this word is broken literally.

There are some differences in the sources of the articles. According to Newsweek the bomb went off at just after 7 o'clock, while Time says that the time was 7:01 pm, and they complete it with the fact that the bomb was placed in a truck parking nearby. As regards the number of victims Time's data are more detailed. It injured 100 people-39 needing hospital treatment and six seriously wounded...the bodies of two newsstand workers were found. The name and age of the two dead workers are published as well. Newsweek's source is that more than 100 people injured, six of them seriously , and...the next day, two bodies were found. This attempt ended 17 months and 10 days of peace, while in Newsweek only 17 months are mentioned. There is a difference in time between the announcement of ending the cease-fire and the explosion of the bomb. According to Newsweek the length of time was 90 minutes whereas Time says that it was 80 minutes.

The content of the newspapers and the news itself are products. News is not just the real events happened all over the world, but those which are selected according to political, economical and social factors. 'It is a creation of a journalistic process, an artifact, a commodity even.' (Roger Fowler, p.13) An event is selected to be reported in a newsmagazine if it satisfies several criteria of newsworthiness, or, in other words, news values.